Apakah Wahabi itu? Apakah Termasuk Ahlulsunnah?

Asslamualaikum wr. wb.
Saya selalu mengikuti kolom ustadz menjawab ini, semoga ustadz mendapatkan keberkahan dan pahala, amien.
Ustadz ini adalah pertanyaan saya yang ke 4, alaupun tak satupun belum dapat balasan, namun saya tidak bosan untuk bertanya.
Pertanyaan saya adalah, apa itu wahabi? Apakah iyanyanya termasuk ahlulsunnah? Kalau pengikut wahabi dinisbatkan kepada Syeikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab, kenapa pengikutnya tidak dikatakan Muhammadi/Muhammadiyah?Tolong ustadz jelaskan apa manhajnya, karena terdapat penafsiran yang berbeda-beda di masyarakat tentang wahabi ini.
Saya pernah mendengar di stasiun TV nasional sewaktu raja Fahd meninggal, reporter tersebut mengatakan, “Kuburan raja Fahd dirahasiakan, karena menurut pengikut wahabi berziarah kubur adalah sesuatu yang diharamkan.” Apakah benar demikian menurut pemahaman Syeikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab?
Sebelumnya saya ucapkan terima kasih. Semoga ustadz diberi pahala dan keberkahan, amien.
Sayid Syafrizal


Jawaban:Assalamu ‘alaikum warahmatullahi wa barakatuh
Al-hamdulillah, wash-shalatu wassalamu ‘ala rasulillah, wa ba’duSebelumnya, kami mohon maaf apabila pertanyaan anda yang sudah empat kali itu baru bisa terjawab pada hari ini. Dan kami ucapkan terimakasih atas kesabaran anda.

Istilah wahabi sebenarnya bukan istilah baku dalam literatur Islam. Dan penisbahan istilah wahabi kepada sebagian umat Islam pun kurang objektif. Meski istilah `wahabi` bila kita runut dari asal, memang mengacu kepada tokoh ulama besar di tanah Arab yang bernama lengkap Syeikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab At-Tamimi Al-Najdi (1115-1206 H atau 1703-1791 M). Namun para pendukung dakwah beliau umumnya menolak bila dikatakan bahwa gerakan mereka adalah gerakan wahabiyah. Justru mereka lebih sering menggunakan istilah ahlisunnah wal jamaah atau dakwah salafiyah.

Syeikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab lahir di ‘Uyainah dan belajar Islam dalam mazhab Hanbali. Beliau telah menghafal Al-Qur’an sejak usia 10 tahun. Dakwah beliau banyak disambut ketika beliau datang di Dar`iyah, bahkan beliau dijadikan guru dan dimuliakan oleh penguasa setempat saat yaitu pangeran (amir) Muhammad bin Su`ud yang berkuasa 1139-1179. Oleh amir, dakwah beliau ditegakkan dan akhirnya menjadi semacam gerakan nasional di seluruh wilayah Saudi Arabia hingga hari ini.

Pokok ajaran Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab

Sosok Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab menjadi pelopor gerakan ishlah (reformasi). Sosok beliau muncul menjelang masa-masa kemunduran dan kebekuan berpikir pemikiran dunia Islam, yaitu sekitar 3 abad yang lampau atau tepatnya pada abad ke-12 hijriyah. Dakwah ini menyerukan agar aqidah Islam dikembalikan kepada pemurnian arti tauhid dari syirik dengan segala manifestasinya.

Sementara fenomena umat saat itu sungguh memilukan. Mereka telah menjadikan kuburan menjadi tempat pemujaan dan meminta kepada selain Allah. Kemusyrikan telah merajalela dan merata di hampir semua penjuru negeri. Bid`ah, khurafat dan takhayyul menjadi makanan sehari-hari. Dukun berkeliaran ke sana ke mari, ramalan-ramalan dari syetan sangat digemari, sihir menjadi aktifitas umat, ilmu ghaib seolah menjadi alternatif untuk menyelesaikan berbagai persoalan dalam kehidupan umat Islam.

Syeikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab saat itu bangkit mengajak dunia Islam untuk sadar atas kebobrokan aqidah ini. Beliau menulis beberapa risalah untuk menyadarkan masyarakat dari kesalahannya. Salah satunya adalah kitabut-tauhid, yang hingga kini masih menjadi rujukan banyak ulama di bidang aqidah.

Dakwah Syeikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab ini kemudian melahirkan gerakan umat yang aktif menumpas segala bentuk khurafat, syirik, bid`ah dan beragam hal yang menyeleweng dari ajaran Islam yang asli. Mereka melarang membangun bangunan di atas kuburan, juga mengharamkan untuk menyelimuti kuburan atau memasang lampu di dalamnya. Mereka juga melarang orang meminta kepada kuburan, orang yang sudah mati, dukun, peramal, tukang sihir dan tukang teluh. Mereka juga melarang tawassul dengan menyebut nama orang shaleh seperti kalimat bi jaahirrasul atau keramatnya syeikh Fulan dan Fulan.

Dakwah beliau lebih tepat dikatakan sebagai dakwah salafiyah. Dakwah ini telah membangun umat Islam di bidang aqidah yang telah lama jumud (beku) akibat kemunduran aqidah umat. Dakwah beliau sangat memperhatikan pengajaran dan pendidikan umum serta merangsang para ulama dan tokoh untuk kembali membuka literatur kepada buku induk dan maraji` yang mu`tabar, sebelum menerima sebuah pemikiran.

Sebenarnya mereka tidak pernah mengharamkan taqlid, namun meminta agar umat ini mau lebih jauh meneliti dan merujuk kembali kepada nash-nash dan dalil dari Kitabullah dan sunnah Rasulullah SAW serta pendapat para ulama salafus shalih.

Di antara tokokh ulama salaf yang paling sering mereka jadikan rujukan adalah:

a. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (164-241 H)
b. Ibnu Taimiyah (661-728 H)
c. Muhammad Ibnul Qayyim Al-Jauziyah (6691-751H)

Oleh banyak kalangan, gerakan ini dianggap sebagai pelopor kebangkitan pemikiran di dunia Islam, antara lain gerakan Mahdiyah, Sanusiyah, Pan Islamisme-nya Jamaluddin Al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh di Mesir dan gerakan lainnya di benua India. Paling tidak, masa hidup Muhammad bin Adbul Wahhab lebih dahulu dari mereka semua. Dalam penjulukan yang kurang tepat, gerakan ini sering dijuluki dengan wahabi. Namun istilah ini tidak pernah diterima oleh mereka yang ikut mengembangkan dakwah salafiyah.

Demikian sekelumit tentang gerakan Syeikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab. Maka dengan demikian, sesungguhnya dakwah ini juga dakwah ahlisunnah wal jamaah. Sebab tetap berpegang kepada sunnah Rasulullah SAW dan juga para jamaah (shahabat ridhwanullahi ‘alaihim).

Para pendiri dakwah ini umunya bermazhab fiqih dengan mazhab Al-Hanabilah, jadi tidak benar kalau dikatakan mereka anti mazhab. Namun memang mereka tidak selalu terikat dengan mazhab tersebut dalam fatwa-fatwanya. Terutama bila mereka menemukan dalil yang lebih rajih. Oleh karena itu dakwah merka sering disebut La Mazhabiyyah, namun sebenarnya lebih kepada masalah ushul, sedangkan masalah furu`nya, mereka tetap pada mazhab Al-Hanabilah.

Dakwah ini jelas-jelas sebuah dakwah ahlisunnah wal jamaah serta berpegang teguh dengannya. Mereka menyeru kepada pemurnian tauhid dengan menuntut umat agar mengembalikan kepada apa yang dipahami oleh umat Islam generasi pertama.

Sedangkan bila dikatakan bahwa dakwah ini mengharamkan ziarah kubur, sebenarnya tidak juga. Sebab mereka pun mengakui bahwa ziarah kubur itu ada masyru’iyahnya dari syariat Islam.

Dahulu Aku (Rasulullah SAW) melarang kalian ziarah kubur, namun sekarang silahkan berziarah kubur. (HR Muslim dan merupakan hadits Shahih dan terdapat dalam syarah imam Nawawi)

Hanya saja mereka agak lebih berhati-hati, agar jangan sampai niat ziarah yang baik itu dirusak dengan praktek-praktek yang diharamkan. Seperti meminta doa dari ahli kubur, meminta keberkahan, minta diselamatkan, minta dilindungi, minta jodoh, rizqi dan sebagainya. Sebenarnya praktek seperti inilah yang mereka takutkan. Dan memang praktek seperti ini tidak dibenarkan dalam ajaran Islam. Sebab tempat meminta itu hanya kepada Allah SWT saja, bukan kepada kuburan.

Wallahu a’lam bish-shawab, Wassalamu ‘alaikum warahmatullahi wa barakatuh
Ahmad Sarwat, Lc

Sumber: http://www.eramuslim.com/ks/us/59/21172,1,v.html

PENGERTIAN WAHABI DAN SIAPA MUHAMMAD BIN ADBUL WAHHAB

PENGERTIAN WAHABI DAN SIAPA MUHAMMAD BIN ADBUL WAHHAB

Oleh
Syaikh Muhammad bin Jamil Zainu

Orang-orang biasa menuduh “wahabi ” kepada setiap orang yang melanggar tradisi, kepercayaan dan bid’ah mereka, sekalipun kepercayaan-kepercayaan mereka itu rusak, bertentangan dengan Al-Qur’anul Karim dan hadits-hadits shahih. Mereka menentang dakwah kepada tauhid dan enggan berdo’a (memohon) hanya kepada Allah semata.

Suatu kali, di depan seorang syaikh penulis membacakan hadits riwayat Ibnu Abbas yang terdapat dalam kitab Al-Arba’in An-Nawa-wiyah. Hadits itu berbunyi.

“Artinya : Jika engkau memohon maka mohonlah kepada Allah, dan jika engkau meminta pertolongan, maka mintalah pertolongan kepa-da Allah.” [Hadits Riwayat At-Tirmidzi, ia berkata hadits hasan shahih]

Penulis sungguh kagum terhadap keterangan Imam An-Nawawi ketika beliau mengatakan, “Kemudian jika kebutuhan yang dimintanya -menurut tradisi- di luar batas kemampuan manusia, seperti meminta hidayah (petunjuk), ilmu, kesembuhan dari sakit dan kesehatan maka hal-hal itu (mesti) memintanya hanya kepada Allah semata. Dan jika hal-hal di atas dimintanya kepada makhluk maka itu amat tercela.”

Lalu kepada syaikh tersebut penulis katakan, “Hadits ini berikut keterangannya menegaskan tidak dibolehkannya meminta pertolongan kepada selain Allah.” Ia lalu menyergah, “Malah sebaliknya, hal itu dibolehkan!”

Penulis lalu bertanya, “Apa dalil anda?” Syaikh itu ternyata marah sambil berkata dengan suara tinggi, “Sesungguhnya bibiku berkata, wahai Syaikh Sa’d![1]” dan Aku bertanya padanya, “Wahai bibiku, apakah Syaikh Sa’d dapat memberi manfaat kepadamu?” Ia menjawab, “Aku berdo’a (meminta) kepadanya, sehingga ia menyampaikannya kepada Allah, lalu Allah menyembuhkanku.”

Lalu penulis berkata, “Sesungguhnya engkau adalah seorang alim. Engkau banyak habiskan umurmu untuk membaca kitab-kitab. Tetapi sungguh mengherankan, engkau justru mengambil akidah dari bibimu yang bodoh itu.”

Ia lalu berkata, “Pola pikirmu adalah pola pikir wahabi. Engkau pergi berumrah lalu datang dengan membawa kitab-kitab wahabi.”

Padahal penulis tidak mengenal sedikitpun tentang wahabi kecuali sekedar penulis dengar dari para syaikh. Mereka berkata tentang wahabi, “Orang-orang wahabi adalah mereka yang melanggar tradisi orang kebanyakan. Mereka tidak percaya kepada para wali dan karamah-karamahnya, tidak mencintai Rasul dan berbagai tuduhan dusta lainnya.”

Jika orang-orang wahabi adalah mereka yang percaya hanya kepada pertolongan Allah semata, dan percaya yang menyembuhkan hanyalah Allah, maka aku wajib mengenal wahabi lebih jauh.”

Kemudian penulis tanyakan jama’ahnya, sehingga penulis mendapat informasi bahwa pada setiap Kamis sore mereka menyelenggarakan pertemuan untuk mengkaji pelajaran tafsir, hadits dan fiqih.

Bersama anak-anak penulis dan sebagian pemuda intelektual, penulis mendatangi majelis mereka. Kami masuk ke sebuah ruangan yang besar. Sejenak kami menanti, sampai tiada berapa lama seorang syaikh yang sudah berusia masuk ruangan. Beliau memberi salam kepada kami dan menjabat tangan semua hadirin dimulai dari sebelah kanan, beliau lalu duduk di kursi dan tak seorang pun berdiri untuknya. Penulis berkata dalam hati, “Ini adalah seorang syaikh yang tawadhu’ (rendah hati), tidak suka orang berdiri untuknya (dihormati).”

Lalu syaikh membuka pelajaran dengan ucapan,

“Artinya : Sesungguhnya segala puji adalah untuk Allah. Kepada Allah kami memuji, memohon pertolongan dan ampunan.”, dan selanjutnya hingga selesai, sebagaimana Rasulullah Shalallaahu alaihi wasalam biasa membuka khutbah dan pelajarannya.

Kemudian Syaikh itu memulai bicara dengan menggunakan bahasa Arab. Beliau menyampaikan hadits-hadits seraya menjelaskan derajat shahihnya dan para perawinya. Setiap kali menyebut nama Nabi, beliau mengucapkan shalawat atasnya. Di akhir pelajaran, beberapa soal tertulis diajukan kepadanya. Beliau menjawab soal-soal itu dengan dalil dari Al-Qur’anul Karim dan sunnah Nabi Shalallaahu alaihi wasalam . Beliau berdiskusi dengan hadirin dan tidak menolak setiap penanya. Di akhir pelajaran, beliau berkata, “Segala puji bagi Allah bahwa kita termasuk orang-orang Islam dan salaf.[2]. Sebagian orang menuduh kita orang-orang wahabi. Ini termasuk tanaabuzun bil alqaab (memanggil dengan panggilan-panggilan yang buruk). Allah melarang kita dari hal itu dengan firmanNya,

“Artinya : Dan janganlah kamu panggil-memanggil dengan gelar-gelar yang buruk.” [Al-Hujurat: 11]

Dahulu, mereka menuduh Imam Syafi’i dengan rafidhah. Beliau lalu membantah mereka dengan mengatakan, “Jika rafidah (berarti) mencintai keluarga Muhammad. Maka hendaknya jin dan manusia menyaksikan bahwa sesungguhnya aku adalah rafidhah.”

Maka, kita juga membantah orang-orang yang menuduh kita wahabi, dengan ucapan salah seorang penyair, “Jika pengikut Ahmad adalah wahabi. Maka aku berikrar bahwa sesungguhnya aku wahabi.”

Ketika pelajaran usai, kami keluar bersama-sama sebagian para pemuda. Kami benar-benar dibuat kagum oleh ilmu dan kerendahan hatinya. Bahkan aku mendengar salah seorang mereka berkata, “Inilah syaikh yang sesungguhnya!”

PENGERTIAN WAHABI
Musuh-musuh tauhid memberi gelar wahabi kepada setiap muwahhid (yang mengesakan Allah), nisbat kepada Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab, Jika mereka jujur, mestinya mereka mengatakan Muhammadi nisbat kepada namanya yaitu Muhammad. Betapapun begitu, ternyata Allah menghendaki nama wahabi sebagai nisbat kepada Al-Wahhab (Yang Maha Pemberi), yaitu salah satu dari nama-nama Allah yang paling baik (Asmaa’ul Husnaa).

Jika shufi menisbatkan namanya kepada jama’ah yang memakai shuf (kain wol) maka sesungguhnya wahabi menisbatkan diri mereka dengan Al-Wahhab (Yang Maha Pemberi), yaitu Allah yang memberikan tauhid dan meneguhkannya untuk berdakwah kepada tauhid.

MUHAMMAD BIN ABDUL WAHAB
Beliau dilahirkan di kota ‘Uyainah, Nejed pada tahun 1115 H. Hafal Al-Qur’an sebelum berusia sepuluh tahun. Belajar kepada ayahandanya tentang fiqih Hambali, belajar hadits dan tafsir kepada para syaikh dari berbagai negeri, terutama di kota Madinah. Beliau memahami tauhid dari Al-Kitab dan As-Sunnah. Perasaan beliau tersentak setelah menyaksikan apa yang terjadi di negerinya Nejed dengan negeri-negeri lainnya yang beliau kunjungi berupa kesyirikan, khurafat dan bid’ah. Demikian juga soal menyucikan dan mengkultuskan kubur, suatu hal yang bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam yang benar.

Ia mendengar banyak wanita di negerinya bertawassul dengan pohon kurma yang besar. Mereka berkata, “Wahai pohon kurma yang paling agung dan besar, aku menginginkan suami sebelum setahun ini.”

Di Hejaz, ia melihat pengkultusan kuburan para sahabat, keluarga Nabi (ahlul bait), serta kuburan Rasulullah Shalallaahu alaihi wasalam, hal yang sesungguhnya tidak boleh dilakukan kecuali hanya kepada Allah semata.

Di Madinah, ia mendengar permohonan tolong (istighaatsah) kepada Rasulullah Shalallaahu alaihi wasalam, serta berdo’a (memohon) kepada selain Allah, hal yang sungguh bertentangan dengan Al-Qur’an dan sabda Rasulullah Shalallaahu alaihi wasalam . Al-Qur’an menegaskan:

“Artinya : Dan janganlah kamu menyembah apa-apa yang tidak memberi manfa’at dan tidak (pula) memberi madharat kepadamu selain Allah, sebab jika kamu berbuat (yang demikian) itu, sesungguhnya kamu kalau begitu termasuk orang-orang yang zhalim.” [Yunus : 106]

Zhalim dalam ayat ini berarti syirik. Suatu kali, Rasulullah Shalallaahu alaihi wasalam berkata kepada anak pamannya, Abdullah bin Abbas:

“Artinya : Jika engkau memohon, mohonlah kepada Allah, dan jika engkau meminta pertolongan mintalah pertolongan kepada Allah.” [Hadits Riwayat At-Tirmidzi, ia berkata hasan shahih)

Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab menyeru kaumnya kepada tauhid dan berdo’a (memohon) kepada Allah semata, sebab Dialah Yang Mahakuasa dan Yang Maha Menciptakan sedangkan selainNya adalah lemah dan tak kuasa menolak bahaya dari dirinya dan dari orang lain. Adapun mahabbah (cinta kepada orang-orang shalih), adalah dengan mengikuti amal shalihnya, tidak dengan menjadikannya sebagai perantara antara manusia dengan Allah, dan juga tidak menjadikannya sebagai tempat bermohon selain daripada Allah.

[1]. Penentangan Orang-Orang Batil Terhadapnya
Para ahli bid’ah menentang keras dakwah tauhid yang dibangun oleh Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab. Ini tidak mengherankan, sebab musuh-musuh tauhid telah ada sejak zaman Rasulullah Shalallaahu alaihi wasalam . Bahkan mereka merasa heran terhadap dakwah kepada tauhid. Allah berfirman:

“Artinya : Mengapa ia menjadikan tuhan-tuhan itu Tuhan Yang Satu saja? Sesungguhnya ini benar-benar suatu hal yang sangat mengherankan.” [Shaad : 5]

Musuh-musuh syaikh memulai perbuatan kejinya dengan memerangi dan menyebarluaskan berita-berita bohong tentangnya. Bahkan mereka bersekongkol untuk membunuhnya dengan maksud agar dakwahnya terputus dan tak berkelanjutan. Tetapi Allah Subhannahu wa Ta’ala menjaganya dan memberinya penolong, sehingga dakwah tauhid terbesar luas di Hejaz, dan di negara-negara Islam lainnya.

Meskipun demikian, hingga saat ini, masih ada pula sebagian manusia yang menyebarluaskan berita-berita bohong. Misalnya mereka mengatakan, dia (Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab) adalah pembuat madzhab yang kelima[3], padahal dia adalah seorang penganut madzhab Hambali. Sebagian mereka mengatakan, orang-orang wahabi tidak mencintai Rasulullah Shalallaahu alaihi wasalam serta tidak bershalawat atasnya. Mereka anti bacaan shalawat.

Padahal kenyataannya, Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab –rahimahullah- telah menulis kitab “Mukhtashar Siiratur Rasuul Shalallaahu alaihi wasalam “. Kitab ini bukti sejarah atas kecintaan Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab kepada Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. Mereka mengada-adakan berbagai cerita dusta tentang Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab, suatu hal yang karenanya mereka bakal dihisab pada hari Kiamat.

Seandainya mereka mau mempelajari kitab-kitab beliau dengan penuh kesadaran, niscaya mereka akan menemukan Al-Qur’an, hadits dan ucapan sahabat sebagai rujukannya.

Seseorang yang dapat dipercaya memberitahukan kepada penulis, bahwa ada salah seorang ulama yang memperingatkan dalam pengajian-pengajiannya dari ajaran wahabi. Suatu hari, salah seorang dari hadirin memberinya sebuah kitab karangan Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab. Sebelum diberikan, ia hilangkan terlebih dahulu nama pengarangnya. Ulama itu membaca kitab tersebut dan amat kagum dengan kandungannya. Setelah mengetahui siapa penulis buku yang dibaca, mulailah ia memuji Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab.

[2]. Dalam Sebuah Hadits Disebutkan:

” Artinya : Ya Allah, berilah keberkahan kepada kami di negeri Syam, dan di negeri Yaman. Mereka berkata, ‘Dan di negeri Nejed.’ Rasulullah berkata, ‘Di sana banyak terjadi berbagai kegoncangan dan fitnah, dan di sana (tempat) munculnya para pengikut setan.” [Hadits Riwayat Al-Bukhari dan Muslim]

Ibnu Hajar Al-‘Asqalani dan ulama lainnya menyebutkan, yang dimaksud Nejed dalam hadits di atas adalah Nejed Iraq. Hal itu terbukti dengan banyaknya fitnah yang terjadi di sana. Kota yang juga di situ Al-Husain bin Ali Radhiyallahu anhuma dibunuh.

Hal ini berbeda dengan anggapan sebagian orang, bahwa yang dimaksud dengan Nejed adalah Hejaz, kota yang tidak pernah tampak di dalamnya fitnah sebagaimana yang terjadi di Iraq. Bahkan seba-liknya, yang tampak di Nejed Hejaz adalah tauhid, yang karenanya Allah menciptakan alam, dan karenanya pula Allah mengutus para rasul.

[3]. Sebagian Ulama Yang Adil Sesungguhnya Menyebutkan
Bahwa Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab adalah salah seorang mujaddid (pembaharu) abad dua belas Hijriyah. Mereka menulis buku-buku tentang beliau. Di antara para pengarang yang menulis buku tentang Syaikh adalah Syaikh Ali Thanthawi. Beliau menulis buku tentang “Silsilah Tokoh-tokoh Sejarah”, di antara mereka terdapat Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab dan Ahmad bin ‘Irfan.

Dalam buku tersebut beliau menyebutkan, akidah tauhid sampai ke India dan negeri-negeri lainnya melalui jama’ah haji dari kaum muslimin yang terpengaruh dakwah tauhid di kota Makkah. Karena itu, kompeni Inggris yang menjajah India ketika itu, bersama-sama dengan musuh-musuh Islam memerangi akidah tauhid tersebut. Hal itu dilakukan karena mereka mengetahui bahwa akidah tauhid akan menyatukan umat Islam dalam melawan mereka.

Selanjutnya mereka mengomando kepada kaum Murtaziqah[4] agar mencemarkan nama baik dakwah kepada tauhid. Maka mereka pun menuduh setiap muwahhid yang menyeru kepada tauhid dengan kata wahabi. Kata itu mereka maksudkan sebagai padanan dari tukang bid’ah, sehingga memalingkan umat Islam dari akidah tauhid yang menyeru agar umat manusia berdo’a hanya semata-mata kepada Allah. Orang-orang bodoh itu tidak mengetahui bahwa kata wahabi adalah nisbat kepada Al-Wahhaab (yang Maha Pemberi), yaitu salah satu dari Nama-nama Allah yang paling baik (Asma’ul Husna) yang memberikan kepadanya tauhid dan menjanjikannya masuk Surga.

[Disalin dari kitab Minhajul Firqah An-Najiyah Wat Thaifah Al-Manshurah, edisi Indonesia Jalan Golongan Yang Selamat, Penulis Syaikh Muhammad bin Jamil Zainu, Penerjemah Ainul Haris Umar Arifin Thayib, Penerbit Darul Haq]
________
Foote Note
[1]. Dia memohon pertolongan kepada Syaikh Sa’d yang dikuburkan di dalam masjidnya.
[2]. Orang-orang Salaf adalah mereka yang mengikuti jalan para Salafus Shalih. Yaitu Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, para sahabat dan tabi’in
[3].Sebab yang terkenal dalam dunia Fiqih hanya ada empat madzhab, Hanafi, Maliki, Syafi’i dan Hambali.
[4]. Kaum Murtaziqoh yaitu orang-orang bayaran.

Sumber: Almanhaj

The Wahhabi Movement: History and Beliefs

Q: Dear scholars, As-Salamu `alaykum. I would like to know the historical background of Wahhabism? In what way does their ideology differ from that of the rest of the Muslim community?

A: Wa `alaykum As-Salamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
Dear brother in Islam, we are greatly pleased to receive your question which shows the confidence you place in us. We implore Allah Almighty to help us serve His cause and render our work for His Sake.

Concerning its historical background, Wahhabism is a faith-based, political and reformist movement attributed to its founder, Imam Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab.

Wahhabism is one of reformation movements that emerged during the time that the Muslim world at large suffered from a great intellectual setback.

So it was originally established by its founder to focus mainly on purging Islam of its decadence, alien ideas that mean nothing more than polytheism, in addition to reviving the fervor of days gone by. That is, the main goal of the movement is to call all Muslims back to pure Tawhid (Monotheism) and to stick to the teachings of the Qur’an, and the Prophetic Tradition.

Reviving the ideas of the two notable Islamic figures: Sheikh Ibn Taimiyah and his disciple, Ibn al-Qayyim, as well as upholding the juristic opinions of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, both in credal and juristic matters, are also part of the goals of this group.

Its foundation and prominent members:

1- Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab Al-Mashrafi At-Tamimi An-Najdi (1115-1206 AH /1703-1791 CE). He was born in a town called `Uyaynah to the north of Riyadh.

He studied Hanbali Jurisprudence, tafsir (Qur’anic Interpretation) and Hadith from his learned father; in fact, he memorized the Qur’an by the age of ten.

He went to Makkah to perform Pilgrimage, then to Madinah to obtain more knowledge about Islam. There he met Sheikh Muhammad Hayat As-Sandi (who died in the year 1165 AH), the author of the book Al Hashiyah `Ala Sahih Al-Bukhari. He was greatly influenced by this renowned scholar.

He went to Iraq in the year 1136 AH/ 1724 CE, but was forced to leave Basrah for Ahsa’, then he went to Huraymila’, a village of Najd, because his father had moved there and stayed with him.

After propagating (pure) monotheism in Huraymila’, he returned back to `Uyaynah, and explained his reformist movement to its governor, `Uthman ibn Mu`ammar. The latter, upon responding to his call, assisted him in demolishing all the graves and bringing down the dome over the grave of Zayd ibn Al-Khattab. Together, they carried out the prescribed punishment for adultery on a woman who had confessed to it.

Then Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab went to Dar`iyyah, a place taken by the Su`ud dynasty as its administrative base.

2- Prince Muhammad ibn Su`ud

Muhammad bin `Abdul Wahhab made an alliance with Imam Muhammad ibn Su`ud to spread this thought which now dominates the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and forms the ideological and philosophical basis of the kingdom.

Beliefs and Principles:

1. Although the founder belonged to the Hanbali School of Jurisprudence, he used to sidestep it whenever he found evidence that sounded more convincing to him. Hence, the Salafi call does not follow a specific school in respect to its principles but it follows the views of the Hanbali Juristic School in respect to minor issues.

2. This Salafi movement calls for the revival of Ijtihad (personal reasoning) after it has been abandoned since the fall of Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate.

3. It emphasizes the necessity of returning to the teachings of Allah’s Book (the Qur’an) and the Sunnah and not to accept any thing with regard to belief unless it is based on a clear-cut evidence from both these sources (i.e., the Qur’an and Sunnah).

4. It adopts the method of Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah when it comes to understanding a certain evidence and forming a certain ruling thereupon.

5. It also calls for refining the concept of monotheism (Allah’s Oneness) and calls upon Muslims to adopt what the early Muslims would believe in that regard.

6. It propagates the belief in the Divine attributes and names of Allah, by believing in the names and attributes that Allah Almighty has described Himself with and that which the Prophet (peace be upon him) attributed to Him, without thinking that He has a shaped body or how He lives and without giving a certain interpretation to the verses that include attributes of Allah.

7. It also calls for believing that it is Allah Almighty alone that is worthy of worship. Allah Almighty says: “Serve Allah and shun false gods” (An-Nahl: 36)

8. It revives the obligation of jihad.

9. It calls for abolishing the innovations and superstitions spread because of ignorance and lagging behind, such as:

– visiting a certain grave claming that it is the grave of the Prophet’s Companion Dirar ibn Al-Azwar, and asking him to fulfill their requests,

– visiting a specific dome claiming that it belongs to Zayd Ibn Al-Khattab,

– visiting a certain tree they claim to be of Prophet’s Companion Abu Dujanah

10. The sect also believes that tawassul (invoking Allah through an intermediary) is of two kinds: one is desirable, that is, supplicating Allah by virtue of His Glorious Names, and the other is innovative, that is, supplicating Allah Almighty through, for instance, the person of the Prophet (peace be upon him), or through the persons of so-and-so sheikhs or saints and their closeness to Allah Almighty.

11. The movement prevents building tombs and decorating or lightening them and the like.

12. It calls for firmly opposing the extreme views of the Sufis and the innovations they have introduced to the religion of Islam.

13. It prohibits saying anything about Allah Almighty without knowledge. Allah Almighty says: “Say: My Lord forbiddeth only indecencies, such of them as are apparent and such as are within, and sin and wrongful oppression, and that ye associate with Allah that for which no warrant hath been revealed, and that ye tell concerning Allah that which ye know not.” (Al-A’raf: 33)

14. The things about which the Islamic Shari`ah is silent (as to whether they are lawful or not) are not up to people to decide upon, and so, no one is licensed to say that such things are obligatory or unlawful or desirable or undesirable. Allah almighty says: “O ye who believe! Ask not of things which, if they were made known unto you, would trouble you…” (Al-Maidah: 101)

15. It believes that giving up a clear evidence with regard to some issue and citing instead a contreoversial, allegorical one is a method followed by misled people or groups like Ar-Rafidah and the Kharijites. Allah Almighty says: “But those in whose hearts is doubt pursue, forsooth, that which is allegorical seeking (to cause) dissension by seeking to explain it.” (Al `Imran: 7)

16. The Prophet stated that what is lawful is plain and that which is unlawful is plain and between the two of them are doubtful matters. Therefore, no one can claim that every issue can be judged in clear, decisive terms.

17. On shirk (associating partners with Allah or polytheism), Sheikh Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab maintained that it is of three kinds:

a- Major shirk, which relates to the aspects of worship, intention, obedience and showing fidelity to people.

b- Minor shirk, which relates to the act of showing off, pursuant to the Prophet’s words: “Showing-off, even in a minor way, is a form of shirk.”

c- Hidden shirk, in which a believer may fall inadvertently, according to the following Hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): Shirk is more hidden in this Ummah (i.e. Muslims) than the crawling of the black ant, on the soundless rock, in the tenebrous night.”

18. The movement is keen to awaken the Ummah intellectually and remove the stains of several decades of ignorance, backwardness, and blind imitation.

Finally, Sheikh Muhammad `Ali Al-Hanooti, member of the North American Fiqh Council, adds:

“Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab is a great scholar who wanted to wake people so that they would go back to the Qur’an and the Sunnah. He was reliable in his knowledge, devotion and methodology.”

You can also read:

The Salafi Sect

Which Muslim Group Will be the Saved One?

Which of the 72 groups is right?

Between Atheism and Monotheism

Sumber: ISLAMONLINE.NET

WAHABISM EXPOSED!

 “WAHABISM EXPOSED!”
Sheikh Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al Wahhab

Hidaayah Islamic Foundation [ Sri Lanka ]

 In the first half of the twelfth century (Hijra) the Islamic World had reached its extreme decline, degradation and utter fall. The atmosphere was very gloomy and darkness had covered all its regions. Moral degradation and corruption was rampant everywhere. As for religion it was decadent as everything else. The pure and austere monotheism (TAWHEED) of the Prophet (sal) had become corrupted with the burgeoning growth of superstition and mysticism. The mosques stood empty, unfrequented and even deserted. The ignorant multitude decked out in amulets, charms and rosaries listened to and blindly followed squalid faqeers and ecstatic dervishes. These men urged them to perform pilgrimages to the tombs of Saints and seek their intercession with Allah. As for the moral precepts ordained by the Qur’an they too were ignored as well as defied. Even the consumption of intoxicants and opium were well nigh universal. In all certainty the life had been bulldozed out of Islam, leaving behind naught but a dry husk of meaningless ritual and degrading superstition.

The period of the Pious Predecessors being already passed, innovations and superstitions cropped up and vastly mushroomed. The people went back to their old practices of idolatry. They started paying homage to shrines and graves, so much so that they even directed their devotional prayers and supplications towards the graves to the exclusion of Allah. They gave precedence to the philosophical views and taqleed (blind following) over the Sunnah. They divested Allah of His essential attributes by making false interpretations on the Qur’anic texts.

But, all praises to Allah, no generation, persistently beset with innovations and abominable Shirk was ever devoid of sincere reformers who revived the faith to its pristine purity. In such darkest hour, a voice came crying out of the vast Arabian desert, the cradle of Islam, calling the faithful back to the true path, the one and only way – the Qur’an and the Sunnah. That was the great Mujaddid and puritan reformer, the celebrated Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, who kindled a fire, which spread and engulfed the remotest corners of the Muslim World, purging Islam of its decadence and reviving the fervor of days gone by. The morning of reformation had dawned and the great re-awakening of the Islamic world had begun.

This peaceful, religious, revivalist movement of the Sheikh was obnoxious to the Turks and others for more reasons than one. They tried to crush this movement by force. They even killed some of the leaders, but could not destroy the movement outright. The movement lived on and is now growing all over the world. Everywhere in the Muslim world we are witnessing, the raising of the banner of Tawheed and the revival of the Call to the Qur’an and Sunnah.

All around the Muslim world, we see some Muslims, individually and collectively proclaiming the Call to Tawheed and the return to the Qur’an and Sunnah in the face of opposition by the ‘Saint-worshippers’, `Grave-worshippers`, `the Sufis’ and the ‘Tariqat followers’. These deviant groups all purport or make the false claim to be Ahl us Sunnah wal Jam’aah and label the true callers to The Sunnah as `Wahhabis’

In view of the ignoble and false propaganda mounted against the reformatory movement of Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab and the derogatory use of the word `Wahhabi’ for the movement ant its followers, we will Insha Allah in the course of this booklet, give a short account of the important events of his life and salient features of his creed and of his works.


HIS LIFE STORY
Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab ibn Sulaiman ibn Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Rashid al Tamimi was born in the year 1115 A.H.(1703 C.E.) in ‘Ayina to the north of Riyadh, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the reign of Abdulla ibn Muhammad ibn Hamd ibn Muammar. He excelled over his contemporaries in intelligence and physique and was able to commit the Quran to memory by the time he was ten years old. His father found him capable of leading the congregational prayers and decided to get him married that year.

He studied the Hanbali Jurisprudence, Tafsir and Hadith from his learned father. During his childhood itself, he directed his full attention to the books on Tafsir, Hadith and Aqidah and particularly to the writings of Sheik al Islam Ibn Taimiya and Ibn al Qayyim and made a deep study of them.

He left his native town to perform the Hajj and then proceeded to Madinah. At that time Sheikh Abdullah bin Ibrahim ibn Saif belonging to the progeny of Saif Najdi was chief of the scholars of Madinah. Sheikh Muhammad acquired a good deal of knowledge from him and came to be loved and held in high esteem by his teacher. His strong stand on Thawheed and his deep concern over false beliefs and evil deeds brought about a strong bond between the Sheikh and his teacher. He was so impressed by his student that Sheikh Abdullah granted him permission of narrating well-known hadiths of two of the authorities. Firstly on the authority of Ibn Muflih reporting from Sheikh Ibn Taiymiyyah and reaching up to Imam Ahmad. Secondly on the authority of Abd al Rahman bin Rajab, reporting from Ibn al Qayyim who narrated it from his teacher Sheikh ibn Taiymiyya reaching up to Imam Ahmad. Sheikh Abdullah also authorized him to narrate all the traditions reported by Sheikh Abd al Baqi Hanbali, the chief among the great teachers of his time. He also authorised him to narrate the traditions of the Sahih of Bukhari and the traditions of the Sahih of Muslim and commentaries of both, the Sunan of Tirmidhi, Nasa’ai, Abu Dawud, Ibn Maajah, the Muwatta of Imam Malik and the Musnad of Imam Ahmad.

During this time he came to know and benefited from the knowledge of other scholars such as Ali Afendi Daghastanee, Ismaeel Ajluni and others. Then he moved on to Nejd, Basra and Syria for the purpose of acquiring further knowledge. He stayed for a long time in Basra, where he pursued his studies under a number of renowned scholars, among whom Sheikh Muhammad Majmui was most prominent. During this time he compiled and published many valuable books on the topic of innovations, superstitions and the supplication to the dead ones in the graves. He supported his treatises with manifest evidence from the Quran.

The adherents of falsehood defamed, tortured and turned him out of Basra. They also persecuted his teacher Sheikh Majmui. He left for the town of Zubair in the scorching heat of the summer and was almost dying of thirst, when Allah sent to him a man called Abu Hamidan. He found the Sheikh to be a man of learning and righteousness. So he mounted him on his animal and took him to Zubair. Sheikh Muhammad thought of going to Syria to quench his thirst for more knowledge, but soon fell short of provision and was compelled to return to Nejd. He arrived at Ahsa and stayed with the Sheikh Abdullah ibn Abd al Latiff Shafi’i and studied under him.


UN-ISLAMIC PRACTICES OF THAT TIME.
Sheikh Muhammad then went to Harimala, a village of Nejd because his father had transferred there and stayed with him. He devoted himself fully to the learning of Tafsir and Hadith, particularly the works of Skeikh ibn Taiymiyyah and Sheikh ibn Qayyim. This immensely increased his knowledge and insight and infused in his heart a spirit of determination and steadfastness. With his deep insight he could visualize all the un-Islamic notions and corrupt practices prevailing in Nejd and the countries he had visited. Even in Madinah, he saw people invoking the Prophet (sal) and making supplication to him. He decided to disseminate the True message of Islam throughout the Arabian Peninsula.

The Sheikh found that Nejd was infested with corrupt beliefs and religious practices repugnant to the fundamentals of the True Religion. There were a number of graves in the Nejd area which were attributed to some of the Companions of the Prophet (sal). People visited these graves and invoked them for help in their hour of need. In Jubila they visited the grave of Zaid ibn Khattab and seeking relief for their needs. In Manfuha, people sought mediatiothrouga male palm-tree believing that a spinster, who pays a visit to it, soon gets married.

In Dariya there was a cave which people frequented. Similarly there was grave of Dirar ibn al Azwar in the valley of Ghabira. It was the same story as in Basra and Zubair where people worship idols of the pre-Islamic period. A similar sad state of affairs prevailed in Iraq, Syria Egypt and Yemen.

He compared all these practices in the light of the Quran and the practices of the Prophet (sal) and his Companions and found them far removed from and inconsistent with the religion and spirit of Islam. This was the sorry state of affairs not only with the people of Nejd but of other places as well, in the Muslim world.
CALL FOR REVIVAL OF PURE MONOTHEISM
The Sheikh found that the people had abandoned their faith, and the more he studied their deviations, the firmer he grew in his conviction and determination that Muslims should inevitably change themselves and tread the path of the Pious Predecessors. The hadiths of Prophet (Sal) say as follows:

  1.  
    1. `You must necessarily tread the path of those who lived before you’.
    2. `The last hour shall not come, until some of the people of my Ummah begin to worship idols.’
    3. `Islam was born a stranger and shall return as a stranger in similar manner.’

Sheikh Muhammad had by now resolved to publicly declare unto his people that they had gone astray from the right path.

He started with his call to the people in the town of Harimala, and made it clear to them, that he called them only unto Allah. He reminded the people that everything should be for Allah alone and that they should give up their wrong beliefs and practices. This naturally led to a dispute and struggle with the people and even with his father, who had been led away by the false sayings of the deviated followers.

The Sheikh continued to pursue his cause undeterred by making speeches, writing as well as practically guiding the people. Eventually a good majority of his people accepted his views. His father and brother Sulaiman too were convinced after prolonged discussions. In the year 1153 A.H. his father Abd al Wahhab passed away.

After the death of his father the people openly accepted the call of the Sheikh and forsook their false notions. They responded to the call for a return to the Sunnah of the Prophet (sal) both in words and deeds.

During this time his town was dominated by two tribes both claiming leadership but none able to take full control and maintain justice. These tribes were in the practice of keeping slaves and indulged in every mischief and sin. When the Sheikh thought of admonishing them, they got wind of it and set upon him but were prevented by the timely action of some good people.

The Sheikh left Harimala for his native town Aiyna, where his forefathers once lived and ruled. Here he met one Uthman bin Hamd bin Muammar, to whom he explained his reformist movement based on the Quran and Sunnah. He explained the significance of Thawheed and how much the beliefs and actions of the people differed from the true path. He told Uthman that if he would uphold the cause of Allah and his word, he would soon come to the leadership in Nejd and crowned with eternal bliss.

Uthman responded readily to the Sheikh’s call. Here again the Sheikh urged the people to return to the worship of Allah only (Thawheed) and a strict adherence to the Sunnah of the Prophet (sal). The Sheikh managed to cut down trees that were being worshipped in the area. He succeeded with the help of Uthman, in bringing down the dome over the grave of Zaid ibn al Khattab. He also carried out the prescribed punishment for adultery on a woman who had confessed to it.

The Sheikh and his message came to be widely known, and his reputation spread far and wide and it also reached Sulaiman bin Muhammad bin Urai’ir, the Governor of Ahsa and the children of Khalid. This impudent and ignorant man sent a letter to Uthman bin Muammir saying, “this man who is with you is saying this and did that, and when you receive this letter slay him, if not we shall withhold your kharaj (revenue} which is with us in Ahsa.” This was a tricky situation for Uthman. To oppose Urair was too much for him. Fearing this threat and weak in his faith ibn Muammar ordered the Sheikh to be banished from his town.

The Sheikh left the town on foot escorted by a horseman through the desert in the scorching sun, with only the thought of Allah, until he reached Dariya as the guest of Abd al rahman bin Suwailim. Through ibn Suwailim most of the prominent people of Dariya came to know of the Sheikh. They visited him in secret and he explained to them the real meaning and the significance of Thawheed. Among those who visited the Sheikh were the two brothers of Prince Muhammad bin Saud. These two brothers after much discussion and tutoring by the Sheikh were enlightened. They explained to their brother prince Muhammad that Sheikh Muhammad was staying with Ibn Suwailim and that he was a blessing from Allah sent to them. They urged the prince to meet the Sheikh.


PRINCE MUHAMMED BIN SAUD ACCEPTS THE SHEIKH
Prince Muhammad accepted the suggestion and met the Sheikh. He invited the Prince to Thawheed saying that it was the message, with which all the Messengers were sent by Allah. He also drew the attention of the Prince to the polytheistic practices and notions prevalent among the people of the Nejd. He wished that the Prince should assume leadership of the Muslims. The prince acceded to the wish of the Sheikh and offered him all help and assistance to carry out his task. He also promised to adhere to the Sunnah of the Prophet (sal) to command the good and to prohibit the evil.

After the Sheikh had settled at Dariya, people began to throng to him from all sides even claiming kinship and accepting his Call. In the meantime Uthman ibn Muammar who exiled the Sheikh from his town came to know of Prince Muhammad’s acceptance of Sheikh Muhammad and his message. Now Uthman very much regretted what he had done to the Sheikh.

Uthman ibn Muammar, accompanied by a large delegation came to Dariya and called on the Sheikh to tender their apologies. They requested the Sheikh to come back with them. He replied that it depended entirely on the wish of Prince Muhammad. Prince Muhammad refused to accede to their request and Uthman and his followers went back disappointed.
SHEIKH GAINS A FOLLOWING

Now people came in large numbers to the Sheikh, seeking pure knowledge without the adulteration of fables and falsehood. He explained to them the real meaning of “La ilaaha illallah” and its significance. He stressed the importance of the negation of all false deities and the affirmation of Allah and his attributes.

The Sheikh communicated with people of other cities and invited them to accept his call and join his movement in order to eradicate Shirk and all its abominable practices.

Some accepted while others rejected and some even ridiculed him and accused him of sorcery. He continued with his mission undeterred. The opponents exerted their utmost to rally their forces to destroy this nascent movement by any or all means. Sheikh Muhammad and the Prince had no alternative but to resort to the sword to defend this movement. This war went on for many years and village after village fell to the new alliance. Some opponents voluntarily began to accept them when they realized the true nature of the movement.

All the efforts by the misguided group to rally their forces to destroy this nascent movement by any means miserably failed. After the conquest of Riyadh in 1187 A.H. the Sheikh entrusted the governing of the people to Prince Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud and devoted his time to worship, learning and teaching. Prince Muhammad and his son Abd al Aziz always consulted him before they undertook anything and he gave his ruling. After an arduous struggle and having reached his goal he passed away in Dhul Qa’dah of 1206.
BOOKS WRITTEN BY SHEIKH MUHAMMAD

The Sheikh was the author of a number of books, prominent among them being the celebrated KITAB AL TAWHID, which needs no introduction. The other books are Kashf al Shubuhat, Thalabat al Usul, Mukhtasar al-Sal-Nabawiyyah, Mukhthasar al-Insaaf, the Sharh al-Kabir fi’l Fiqh, the Nasihat al-Muslimin bi-ahadite Khatam al-Nabiyyin, Kitab al-Kabair, Ahadith al-Fitn and several other treatises and most of them were pertaining to the topic of Tawheed.

It is mentioned in the work Unwan al-Majid that the Sheikh had many pupils amongst whom were his sons who later became eminent scholars. His four sons Hussain, Abdullah, Ali and Ibrahim established schools close to their homes and taught the young students from Dariya and other places. The fifth son had not studied under him and had died in his youth.

Some for the students who benefited from his knowledge and rose to the position of Qadis and Muftis are as follows:

Sheikh Abd al Aziz bin Abdullah al Hussein al Nasim who was a Judge in the territory of Al Washm.

Sheikh Said bin Hijji who became Judge of Hauta of Bani Tamim,

Sheikh abd al Rahman bin Nami, who became Judge of Aiyna

Ahsa, Shaikh Ahmad bin Rashid al-Uraini the Qadi of Sudair.

The most notable student was Sheikh Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abdul Latiff bin Abdul Rahman bin Hassan who was the grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia.
A SUMMARY OF THE STRUGGLE OF SHEIKH MUHAMMED

Due to the Sheikh’s strong views on Tawhid he was a controversial figure throughout his life and after his death to this day. We will reproduce here some of his communications and excerpts of treatises he had written for the benefit of the readers. Here is what he wrote to al-Suwaidi one of the scholars of Iraq in reply to his letter:

“From Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab to his brother in faith Abd al-Rahman ibn Abdalla- Peace be upon you and also the Mercy and the Blessings of Allah. To continue: I am pleased to receive your letter. May Allah make you one of the leaders of the pious people and also one of the missionaries calling people to the Religion of the Chief of the Messengers. I would like to inform you that I am by the Grace of Allah a follower of the Pure Religion and not a Mubtadi(Innovator). My Creed and Religion with which I obey Allah is the same Madhab as that of the Ahl al-Sunnah wal Jama’ah and as that held by the leaders of the Muslims such as the four celebrated leaders of law and their followers till the day of resurrection.

However, I have laid emphasis on faithfulness and sincerity in following the Religion of Allah. I have asked the people not to invoke the living and the dead from among the saintly and pious people seeking help. I have also advised them to avoid committing acts of SHIRK (associating other objects in the worship of Allah) while offering devotion to Allah in such matters like slaughtering for sacrifice, making vows, trusting in anyone or in Sujood (Prostration) and such other matters which are exclusively reserved for Allah alone. None is to be taken as a partner unto Allah may he be an angel or a prophet commissioned by him. It is he alone that all the messengers from the first to the last were ordered to obey and worship. This is the Madhab followed by the Ahl al Sunnah wal Jama’ah.

I have also told the people in clear words that the first and the earliest of people who introduced acts of SHIRK were the Rafidah (Shia extremists) who invoked Ali and others, seeking help for their needs and to rid them of their afflictions.

I hold an office in my town where people listen to me and obey me. This was disliked by some of the chief magnates of the town as what I said was against their traditions. I lead the people in the stipulated prayers and induce them to pay their Zakat and to perform other acts of devotion to Allah. I forbade them to indulge in RIBA, in drinking wine and all other intoxicants. The people opposed these corrupt leaders and rose against them. This is the Thawheed I have been commanded to preach. These mischievous magnates of the town began to ascribe different kinds of fabrications to me. The mischief flared up and they attacked us with all the armies of Satan, the cavalry and the infantry. They allege that I branded all the people as `Kaafirs’ except those who follow me and that I have solemnized their marriages in a wrong and illegal manner. I wonder how a sane man can think of and say such silly things. I however, declare myself free from such calumnies in the presence of Allah. Such talks can only emanate from the mentally deranged. In short whatsoever is mentioned about me- except that I invite them to Thawheed and prohibit them from committing acts of Shirk, is absolutely false.”

MATTERS TO WHICH THE SHEIKH INVITED THE PUBLIC AND WHICH GOT HIM INTO DISPUTE WITH SOME OF THE ULEMAS:

1.Tawhid al-Ubudiya-
He explained to the people that Ibadah is nothing but exclusive obedience to Allah and compliance with His commands. This is a comprehensive term for everything that Allah loves and such words and deeds He is pleased with. The forms of Ibadah (Worship) which are to be offered to Allah alone are many, such as Salat (Prayers), Saum (Fasting), Zakat and Sadaqah, slaughtering of sacrificial animals, tawaf and invocation. He said that anyone who happens to direct any of these acts to anyone other than Allah becomes a Mushriq as Allah the Exalted says:

“ And whoever invokes (or worships) besides Allah any other ilah (god) of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely Al-Kafirun (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah polytheists, pagans idolaters etc.) will not be successful.” Al Quran 23:117

2. Tawassul –
This means a fervent plea and is of two types: the permitted and the prohibited. The permitted one is by means of faith and righteous deeds and the Glorious Names of Allah and his attributes. The prohibited one is entreaty using the name of the Messenger, pious people and saints. Here is what Allah the Exalted says:

“O you who believe! Be mindful of your duty towards Allah and seek the means of approach and strive in His cause as much as you can so that you may be successful.” Al Quran5:35

3. Journeying to Mosques on Pilgrimage –
He asked the people not to undertake any pilgrimages to mosques other then the three mosques as given in an authentic hadith.

“Do not undertake a journey but to the three mosques – the Sacred Mosque Makkah) my mosque (Madinah) and the further Mosque (Al Aqsa).”

4. Construction over graves, covering and decorating them etc. –
The Sheikh openly declared that to construct buildings over the graves is unlawful. So is to shroud the graves with beautiful coverings and decorating them. It is prohibited to burn candles over the graves or to set up stone inscriptions. He also declared that it is illegal to have custodians and caretakers of shrines. Visiting such places tantamount to idol worship and can lead to other prohibited actions such as kissing them and going round them. He supported his statements with numerous hadiths prohibiting such constructions, visiting them and praying in them. The Shaikh quoted the hadith of Abu ‘l-Hayyaj al-Asadi whom Ali ibn Abi Talib asked:

“Should I not commission you with a duty with which the Messenger of Allah had commissioned me-to leave no statue but to crush it, and no grave raised above the surface of the ground but to level it down?”

5. Unity with respect of the Holy Names and Attributes of Allah-
On this the Sheikh held the views of the Pious Predecessors and the four celebrated teachers of law and others who held the same view, namely the affirmation and recognition of the Names and Attributes of Allah without employing Tamtheel (finding similarity with Allah’s attributes) or Takeef. (e.g. To explain how Allah does some thing).
6. Innovations-
The Sheikh very much disliked and spoke out against innovations (Bida’) especially:
1. The celebration and holding of gatherings on the Prophet’s Birthday.

2. Making Dhikr and salawath before pronouncing the Adhan.

3. Verbally pronouncing the Niyyah (intention) particularly before Takbir Tahrim.

4. Recital of a hadith of Abu Huraira before the Khatib ascends the Minbar. (Pulpit)

The Sheikh also abhorred and condemned the innovated practices of Tariqas (Orders), Tawassuf (Mysticism) and other practices which have no authority or sanction eitfrom the Messenger (sal) or from the Companion(R.A). Several Ulema had compiled works on this subject even before Sheikh Muhammad such as Ibn-Waddah, al-Turthushi and al-Shatibi on these abominable innovated practices and heretical actions. This is a short biography of the best of reformers and the greatest of Mujahids and a renowned scholar of Islam, whom Allah blessed with deep insight. This reform movement was initiated by Sheikh Muhammad and not by Sheikh Abdul Wahhab. The correct name for this movement should have been “al-Muhammadiya” and not “al Wahhabiya”. In the light of the above facts it is left to the reader to judge whether the Sheikh initiated a new madhab or was reviving the deen of the Prophet (sal), his noble companions and their successors.

Indeed all Praise and thanks be to Allah the Exalted, who has graced us with the favor of preparing this life sketch of the Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. May Allah be merciful to him and Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon Muhammad (sal) upon his family, all his noble companions and their successors until the last day.

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